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On the advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries.

02-102024
Author : BATTSYS

Although lithium batteries are currently popular, with the development of technology, they have also been classified into various types, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. However, overall, lithium batteries have the following common advantages and disadvantages:


1. The advantages of lithium batteries
(1) High voltage: The working voltage of a single battery can reach 3.7-3.8V (the battery voltage can be charged up to 4.2V), which is three times higher than that of Ni Cd and Ni-H batteries.
(2) Greater specific energy: Currently, the actual achievable specific energy is about 555Wh/kg, which means the specific capacity of the material can reach over 150 mAh/g (3-4 times that of Ni Cd and 2-3 times that of Ni mh), which is close to 88% of its theoretical value.
(3) Long cycle life: generally up to 500 times or even 1000 times, and lithium iron phosphate can reach over 2000 times. For electrical appliances with low current discharge, the service life of the battery will greatly increase the competitiveness of the appliance.
(4) Good safety performance: no pollution, no memory effect. As the predecessor of lithium-ion batteries, metallic lithium is prone to forming dendrites and short circuits, which reduces its application areas. Lithium ions do not contain elements that pollute the environment such as cadmium, lead, and mercury. Some processes (such as sintering) have a major drawback of nickel cadmium batteries, which is the "memory effect". It seriously limits the use of batteries, but lithium ions do not have such problems at all.
(5) Low self discharge: After one month of storage, the self discharge rate of fully charged lithium ions at room temperature is about 2%, much lower than 25-30% of Ni Cd and 30-35% of Ni and MH.
(6) Fast charging and discharging: After 30 minutes of charging, the capacity can reach more than 80% of the nominal capacity, and now the phosphorus iron battery can reach 90% of the nominal capacity after 10 minutes of charging.

(7) High working temperature range: The working temperature is -25~55 ° C. With the improvement of electrolyte and positive electrode, it is expected to be widened to -40~70 ° C.


2. Disadvantages of lithium batteries
(1) Aging: Unlike other rechargeable batteries, the capacity of lithium-ion batteries will slowly decrease, independent of the number of uses, but related to temperature. The possible mechanism is that the internal resistance of the system gradually increases, making it easier to reflect in electronic products with high operating currents. Replacing graphite with lithium titanate seems to extend lifespan.
(2) Unable to withstand charging: When overcharged, the excessively embedded lithium ions will be permanently fixed in the lattice and cannot be released again, which can lead to short battery life, gas generation, and gas bulge.
(3) Inadequate discharge: Excessive discharge and electrode detachment of excessive lithium ions can cause lattice collapse, thereby shortening the lifespan of gas drums and gas production.

(4) Multiple protection mechanisms are required: Due to the fact that incorrect use can reduce lifespan and even lead to explosions, multiple protection mechanisms have been added to the design of lithium-ion batteries.


Guangzhou Battsys Co., Ltd (NEEQ:837375), was founded in 2006, which is a join-stock high-tech enterprise engaging in ODM and OEM , specially for customized and diverse research&production of lithium-ion battery,BATTSYS annual production capacity is tens of millions battery cells. The products are exported to dozens of countries & regions such as Europe, America & Asia etc.

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